Current literature theorizes that culture-induced expectancy beliefs and values in learning may engage learners of varied cultures in differentiated motivational processes. The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which U.S. and Chinese middle school students differed in expectancy-value motivation in physical education. Middle school students from the U.S. (n = 813, 14 schools) and China (n = 806, 8 schools) provided data on expectancy-value motivation in physical education. A MANOVA with country as the independent factor and grade level as covariate revealed that the U.S. students held higher expectancy beliefs (p =.001, η2=.62), while the Chinese students showed stronger appreciation for the attainment (p =.001, η2=.33) and utility values (p =.001, η2=.35). The students from both countries equally appreciated the intrinsic value (p =.45). A canonical correlation analysis demonstrated that the expectancy-value motivation declined with age/grade increase at the same pace regardless of culture. These findings clarify for us the cultural influence or non-cultural influence on the expectancy-value motivation in middle school students. They inform us about the potential to develop intrinsic-value based across-cultural motivation strategies as well as the cultural sensitivity of applying motivation strategies focusing on expectancy of success, attainment value, and utility value.
Sun, Haichun; Ding, Haiyong; and Chen, Ang
Nothing but Being There Matters: Expectancy-Value Motivation Between U.S. and Chinese Middle School Students.
Vol. 42 Issue (2).
Retrieved from: http://trace.tennessee.edu/internationaleducation/vol42/iss2/2